Ovarian Cysts Types, Symptoms, Causes and Diagnosis

Dr Geetha Nagasree is the best Lady doctor for ovarian cyst in Hyderabad. According to her, every woman must know about ovarian cysts, their risks, types of cysts, symptoms and the diagnosis of ovarian cysts.

Ovaries constitute a part of the female reproductive system. They are located on either side of the uterus in the lower abdomen. There are two ovaries that produce eggs as well as oestrogen and progesterone hormones.

Cysts are the fluid-filled sacs or solid pockets that develop on one or both the ovaries. Cysts are common in women and in the majority of the cases, they cause no symptoms. They go away on their own. They become problematic when they persist and becomes bigger. Cysts can cause pain. Though there is no possibility of a cyst developing into cancer, the risk is there. The risk of a cyst developing into ovarian cancer is rare but increases with age.

Ovarian cysts in women after menopause are more likely to be cancerous than those in younger women.

Types of ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are of different types – such as dermoid cysts, cystadenomas, endometriomas, follicle cysts and corpus luteum cysts. Follicle cyst and corpus luteum cysts are functional cysts (they are part of the monthly cycle).

Follicle cyst: egg grows inside a sac within the ovary. This sac is known as a follicle. The sac breaks open and releases an egg. If the sac doesn’t break open, a cyst develops within the follicle. This type of cyst may last for a month or two and then go away on its own.

Corpus luteum cysts: The sac of follicle usually dissolves after it releases an egg. Sometimes the sac doesn’t dissolve (shrinks) and further fluid accumulates in it. The opening then seals and the fluid inside it causes a corpus luteum cyst to develop. This type of cyst may go away in a few weeks.

Similarly, cystadenomas are the cysts that develop on the outer surface of the ovaries and dermoid cysts are the sac-like growths on the ovaries.

 

In some women, a large number of cysts develop on their ovaries. This condition is known as a polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). It can cause infertility if left untreated.

Risk factors for ovarian cysts

Hormonal abnormalities, drugs that induce fertility, a severe pelvic infection, endometriosis and a personal history of ovarian cysts can increase the risk of developing ovarian cysts.

Symptoms of ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts usually cause no symptoms. The symptoms may manifest as the cyst grows and include the following:

    • Abdominal pain
    • Sharp or dull pain on one side of the belly
    • Bloating or swelling
    • Painful bowel movements
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Pelvic pain

Fever, sharp or intense pelvic pain, dizziness, faintness, rapid breathing are the symptoms associated with ovarian trouble and warrants immediate medical attention. Call for emergency help straight away if you experience these symptoms.

Complications associated with ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts usually don’t cause any severe complications as they are mostly benign and go away on their own. On rare occasions, during routine medical check-ups and gynaecological examinations, your gynaecologist may notice a cystic ovarian mass – which could be cancerous.

Another rare complication of ovarian cyst is an ovarian torsion. In this case, a large cyst displaces ovary from its position, due to which the ovary twists and moves away. The twisting of the ovary may result in the breakdown of blood supply to it and causes ovarian tissue damage and death. Though ovarian torsion is very rare, it is an emergency medical condition. Approximately 3 to 4% of women on an average undergo emergency gynecologic surgeries due to this condition.

Ovarian cysts, sometimes, rupture and cause severe pain and internal bleeding. Though ruptured cysts are rare, the condition causes intense pain and increases the risk of life-threatening infection.

Diagnosis of Ovarian cyst

A gynaecologist performs physical examination including a routine pelvic examination to inspect female reproductive organs. Based on the medical history of the patient and existing symptoms, your gynaecologist may recommend pelvic examination once or twice a year. The diagnostic tests that your gynaecologist orders to diagnose ovarian cysts include pelvic ultrasound, blood test, laparoscopy, CA 125 blood test (the levels of this protein are elevated in a woman with ovarian cancer). An abdominal CT scan may also be recommended to detect ovarian cysts. Read: The Treatment for Ovarian Cyst

Dr Geetha Nagasree

The best lady doctor for ovarian cyst in Hyderabad